Endocrine System

Monday, April 12, 2010

The endocrine system is a system of glands, each of which secretes a type of hormone to regulate the body. The endocrine system is an information signal system much like the nervous system. Hormones regulate many functions of an organism, including mood, growth and development, tissue function, and metabolism. The field of study that deals with disorders of endocrine glands is endocrinology, a branch of the wider field of internal medicine.

The endocrine system is made up of a series of ductless glands that produce chemicals called hormones. A number of glands that signal each other in sequence is usually referred to as an axis, for example, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Typical endocrine glands are the pituitary, thyroid, and adrenal glands. Features of endocrine glands are, in general, their ductless nature, their vascularity, and usually the presence of intracellular vacuoles or granules storing their hormones. In contrast, exocrine glands, such as salivary glands, sweat glands, and glands within the gastrointestinal tract, tend to be much less vascular and have ducts or a hollow lumen. Also controls metabolism in our body system.

The nervous system sends electrical messages to control and coordinate the body. The endocrine system has a similar job, but uses chemicals to “communicate”. These chemicals are known as hormones. A hormone is a specific messenger molecule synthesized and secreted by a group of specialized cells called an endocrine gland. These glands are ductless, which means that their secretions (hormones) are released directly into the bloodstream and travel to elsewhere in the body to target organs, upon which they act. Note that this is in contrast to our digestive glands, which have ducts for releasing the digestive enzymes.