Acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema results from an acute left ventricular insufficiency, itself resulting from systolic or diastolic dysfunction, with myocardial infarction being the main etiology. Treatment is based on oxygen, diuretics and nitrates. In severe cases, mechanical ventilation may be necessary. In other words, cardiogenic pulmonary edema is a condition in which fluid accumulates in the lungs, usually because the heart's left ventricle does not pump adequately.
The build-up of fluid in the spaces outside the blood vessels of the lungs is called pulmonary edema. Pulmonary edema is a common complication of heart disorders, and most cases of the condition are associated with heart failure. Pulmonary edema can be a chronic condition, or it can develop suddenly and quickly become life threatening. The life-threatening type of pulmonary edema occurs when a large amount of fluid suddenly shifts from the pulmonary blood vessels into the lung, due to lung problems, heart attack, trauma, or toxic chemicals. It can also be the first sign of coronary heart disease.
Most cases of acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema are caused by failure of the heart's main chamber, the left ventricle. It can be brought on by an acute heart attack, severe ischemia, volume overload of the heart's left ventricle, and mitral stenosis. Non-heart-related pulmonary edema is caused by lung problems like pneumonia, an excess of intravenous fluids, some types of kidney disease, bad burns, liver disease, nutritional problems, and Hodgkin's disease. Early symptoms of pulmonary edema include: sudden respiratory distress after sleep, shortness of breath upon exertion, coughing, difficulty breathing.