Thursday, February 14, 2019

How your mind works

In this video I explain you how the human brain works. Being divided into two longitudinal halves, left and right, it sees reality in two different ways; the left cerebral hemisphere is analytical; it breaks up reality into its composing parts as it sees the differences between the pieces that make up the whole (a car, a clock, a table, a human body, etc); it is also linear, logical, and conservative (passive), as it tends to hang on to old values and strategies.

On the other hand, the right cerebral hemisphere is the synthesizer of reality, putting together the pieces to see the whole and be able to see the performance of the whole; it is also creative and the initiator of new enterprises, developing new strategies to cope with the new circumstances that cropped up unexpectedly.

How the human mind works (youtube video)

Thursday, January 17, 2019

Best treatment for brain tumor

If you or someone you love is suffering from a malignant brain tumor, do not worry, for there is a light of hope at the end of the tunnel. There is a dietary treatment being used today to treat patients suffering from brain cancer like glioblastoma. The diet the patient is put on is called ketogenic diet, which is a high-fat and extremely low-carb diet. Cancer, Alzheimer disease, and diabetes type II are metabolic diseases, which are triggered by a malfunction or dysfunction of the cell mitochondria (the cell power plant that produces ATP). This is caused by damage done to the mitochondria by free radicals and ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species). When this happens, an oncogene in the nuclear DNA is activated, and the cell, instead of dying, metamorphoses into a cancer cell.

As everybody knows, with a "normal" high-carb diet, the body cells main fuel is glucose (blood sugar). But high levels of glucose spins off free radicals, such as Superoxyde (O2), Hydroxyl (OH), and Peroxyl radical (ROO), in the cell cytoplasm. These free radicals damage the mitochondria and the cell nucleus membrane, which over time might lead to a metabolic disease. However, what most people do not know is that glucose is not the only fuel that can be used by the tissue cells. There is a more efficient one; fat, which is broken down into ketone bodies.

Thus, with a ketogenic diet, the nerve cells mitochondria use a different kind of fuel instead of glucose. Cancer cells consume 5 times more glucose than ordinary cells. So, you have to starve them by giving your neurons another kind of fuel. Instead glucose, give them ketone bodies (ß-hydroxybuterate, acetoacetate), which are produced by the liver cells from the fat we have stored in our body or from the saturated fat we eat daily in ketogenic diet. Since cancer cells cannot use this high-octane fuel (ketone bodies), they start starving and dying, and the tumor growth perceptibly slows down and eventually stops.

Dr Eric Berg interviews a brain cancer survivor


Dr D'Agostino PhD - Starving cancer with a ketogenic diet

Friday, January 11, 2019

Omohyoid muscle

The omohyoid is a deep muscle of the neck. It originates from the upper border of the scapula and goes up and forward, forming a slight curve, to attach itself on the hyoid bone at the front of the neck. Joined together by a central tendon, it is made up of two flat bellies; the anterior belly, which is the upper part that attaches to the hyoid bone, and the posterior belly, which is the lower portion anchored to the scapula.

Action

It depresses (pulls down) the larynx and the hyoid bone right after they have been pulled up with the pharynx during swallowing.

Innervation

The omohyoid muscle is innervated by a branch coming off the ansas cervicalis, which is formed by the first three cervical nerves.

Blood supply

It receives oxygen-rich blood from a branch of the external carotid artery.

Omohyoid bone drawing

Friday, December 21, 2018

Ketolysis

Ketolysis is the degradation (the breaking down) of ketone bodies into simpler molecules to be employed as fuel in the production of ATP by the cell mitochondria. This metabolic pathway only takes place in the absence of glucose, during starvation or when the individual has a ketogenic diet.

Metabolic process

The ketone body Beta-hydroxybutyrate is produced by the liver cell mitochondria from fatty acid, which in turn derives from the saturated fat we eat or from the adipose tissue we have as a store of energy in our subcutaneous tissue. Once this ketone body is released, it travels in the bloodstream and gets into our brain through the brain blood barrier. There, it gets into the nerve cell cytoplasms where it is degraded first into acetoacetate, through the intervention of ß-hydroxybutyrate Dehydrogenase enzyme, and then into acetoacetyl CoA thanks to the CoA Transferase enzyme. The CoA (coenzyme A) is added to acetoacetyl by the molecule succinyl CoA, which is an intermediate of the TCA cycle.

Finally, acetoacetyl CoA gets split into two molecules of acetyl CoA; this is done by the Thyolase enzyme. Each of the acetyl CoA can be used in the TCA cycle for the production of ATP (Adenine TriphosPhate), yielding 10 ATPs each.

Below, a complete diagram of ketolysis

Tuesday, December 18, 2018

Lateral muscles of the neck: scaleni

The three muscles located in the lateral vertebral region of the neck are called scalenus each one of them (plural scaleni), or simply scalene muscles. Located deep in the neck, on each side of the cervical vertebral column, they are: 1) the scalenus anterior, which arises from the anterior tubercles of transverse processes of 3rd to 6th cervical vertebrea, and inserts in the scalene tubercle of 1st rib; 2) the scalenus medius, which originates from the posterior tubercle of the transverse processes from the 2nd to 6th cervical vertebrea, inserting into 1st rib; 3) scalenus posterior, which begins at the posterior tubercles of transverse processes of the lower three cervical vertebrea, inserting through a thin tendon into the outer surface of 2nd rib.

Function

They raise the first and second ribs and bend sideways the vertebral column of the neck region.

Nerve and blood supply

All three muscles are innervated by branches from the cervical plexus and supplied by the ascending cervical artery, which arises from the inferior thyroid.


Sternohyoid muscle

The sternohyoid is a muscle of the neck located in the infrahyoid region. Long and flat, it runs upwards like a ribbon from the inner end of the clavicle to insert itself into the lower border of the hyoid bone. The sternohyoid stretches over the sternothyroid and travels parallel to the omohyoid muscle. Function: it depresses the hyoid bone and larynx. Blood supply: superior thyroid artery, which arises from the external carotid artery. Nerve supply: a branch from ansa cervicalis (C1-C3).


If you don't eat carbs, then the light comes back on!

Many people are afraid of hypoglycemia and what it implies: a sudden drop in their blood pressure, a black out, and collapsing to the ground on their working site. This is the reason some folks stuff their stomach with a huge, cumbersome breakfast made up entirely of carbohydrates (pan cakes, with maple syrup, cereal, cookies, honey, cake etc). Such an awry breakfast more than contributing to providing you with good energy to start your engine up for the long and hard-work day, it contributes to set you on the threshold of a metabolic disease, such as type II diabetes, or even cancer. Thus, the answer to the question that many people ask themselves "what happens when you don't eat carbs?" is simple: power comes back on when you stop eating carbs, because your body cells start running on a more efficient form of fuel called ketone bodies, which derive from fatty acid, and this from fat.

So, don't be afraid if you don't eat anything for breakfast, for you won't get hypoglycemia and you won't faint, for human evolution has already taken care of it and the light of intelligence and creativity will always be there for you. Hypoglycemia only happens to those people who suffer from Type I diabetes; such patients had a malfunctioning pancreas that secretes neither insulin nor glucagon.

Even if your neurons and skeletal and cardiac muscle cells start using ketone bodies as fuel, your glucose levels in your bloodstream will be kept between 60 and 70 mg/dL. But how come this is so, if you are not eating carbs at all. This is so, because this amount of glucose is manufactured by the liver from glycerol (a type of fat) through a process called gluconeogenesis. This is the reason you don't get hypoglycemic and pass out when you don't eat carbs. But even if these levels drop below 60, you won't faint because you are in ketosis, which means that your brain cells are burning fat, that is to say, they are using this new form of fuel.

Ketone bodies: a more efficient fuel alternative

As I said in the above paragraphs, glucose (sugar in your bloodstream) is not the only fuel your body tissue cells can burn to be able to accomplish their metabolic functions. There is a more efficient and natural form of energy for your cell mitochondria to produce ATP: ketone bodies, which derive from either the fat you have stored in your subcutaneous tissue around your belly during fasting or famine, or from the saturated fat you eat when you have the perfect breakfast for a hard worker: strips of bacon and fried eggs.

Ketone bodies is the ideal fuel for you nerve and muscle cells for three reasons: first, they don't release the high amount of free radicals as glucose does, when they are metabolized by your liver cells and used by your nerve and muscle cells; second, one gram of fat, from which they are derived, is equal to 9 calories, while one gram of carbs is equal to only 4 calories; and third, ketone bodies don't make you overweight, even if you eat a large quantity of saturated fat (like the Eskimos do), because when you eat fat your sugar level in your bloodstream doesn't go up, so there won't be a rush of insulin to lower it transforming it into adipose tissue.

To sum up, when you don't eat carbs at all, you don't get hypoglycemia because you run into a metabolic state called ketosis, which simply means that you body cells are burning fat instead of sugar for fuel. The fat you have stored around your belly, or the fat you eat when you have bacon with fried eggs for breakfast, is broken down into ketone bodies by your liver and used as high-octane fuel. So, don't listen to what the mass media say, for they are run by obscure characters that are always out there to warp and darken reality. Visit an endocrinologist!

Finally, carbs are to humans as soja beans and corn are to cows; and fat and meat are to humans as grass is to cows. What I mean by this is that saturated fat and meat are natural food to us, as much as the green grass in the meadow is to ruminants. Because our brain evolved and developed during the very long period we lived as hunters for hundreds of thousands of years upon the surface of the Earth.

by Carlos B Camacho (anthropologist and nutritionist from Tucuman, Argentina)