The macula is an oval-shaped highly pigmented yellow spot near the center of the retina. It has two or more layers of ganglion cells and a diameter of about 5 mm. Near its center is the fovea, which is a small pit containing the largest concentration of cone cells in the eye and is responsible for central vision.
Damage to the macula can result in loss of central vision. The progressive destruction of the macula is called macular degeneration, which sometimes lead to the creation of a macular hole.