Friday, March 19, 2010

G Protein-Coupled Receptors

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute a large protein family of transmembrane receptors that sense molecules outside the cell and activate inside signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses. G protein-coupled receptors are found only in eukaryotes, including yeast, choanoflagellates, and animals. The ligands that bind and activate the G protein-coupled receptors include light-sensitive compounds, odors, pheromones, hormones, and neurotransmitters, and vary in size from small molecules to peptides to large proteins. G protein-coupled receptors are involved in many diseases, and are also the target of approximately 30% of all modern medicinal drugs.

The main function of the G protein-coupled receptors is to transduce extracellular stimuli into intracellular signals. They are among the largest and most diverse protein families in mammalian genomes. On the basis of homology with rhodopsin, they are predicted to contain seven membrane-spanning helices, an extracellular N-terminus and an intracellular C-terminus. This gives rise to their other names, the 7-TM receptors or the heptahelical receptors. GPCRs transduce extracellular stimuli to give intracellular signals through interaction of their intracellular domains with heterotrimeric G proteins, and the crystal structure of one member of this group, bovine rhodopsin, has recently been solved.

There are two principal signal transduction pathways involving the G protein-coupled receptors: the cAMP signal pathway and the Phosphatidylinositol signal pathway. When a ligand binds to the GPCR it causes a conformational change in the GPCR, which allows it to act as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF). The GPCR can then activate an associated G-protein by exchanging its bound GDP for a GTP. The G-protein's a subunit, together with the bound GTP, can then dissociate from the ß and ? subunits to further affect intracellular signaling proteins or target functional proteins directly depending on the a subunit type.