The remains of La Chapelle-aux-Saints were first studied by Marcellin Boule, whose reconstruction of Neandertal anatomy based on la Chapelle-aux-Saints material shaped popular perceptions of the Neandertals for over thirty years. The La Chapelle-aux-Saints specimen is typical of 'classic' Western European Neandertal anatomy.
This specimen had lost many of his teeth, with evidence of healing. All of the mandibular molars were absent and consequently, some researchers suggested that the 'Old Man' would have needed someone to process his food for him. This was widely cited as an example of Neanderthal altruism, similar to Shanidar 1. However, later studies have shown that La Chapelle-aux-Saints had a number of incisors, canines and premolars in place and therefore would have been able to chew his own food, although perhaps with some difficulty.