Monday, December 20, 2010

Corneal Endothelium

The corneal endothelium is a single layer of specialized, flattened, mitochondria-rich cells that lines the posterior surface of the cornea and faces the anterior chamber of the eye. The corneal endothelium regulates fluid and solute transport across the posterior surface of the cornea and actively maintains the cornea in the slightly dehydrated state that is required for optical transparency.

The main physiological function of the corneal endothelium is to allow leakage of solutes and nutrients from the aqueous humor to the more superficial layers of the cornea while at the same time actively pumping water in the opposite direction, from the stroma to the aqueous.

Hexagonal cells of the corneal endothelium