The TseTse fly is an hematophagous (blood-sucking) fly from Africa which is the vector of the Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiens, which are two species of trypanosomes (protozoans) that cause the African trypanosomiasis, or sleeping sickness. The TseTse fly belongs to the order Diptera, family Glossinidae, genus Glossina. There are twenty two species of TseTse flies from which tree acts as vectors of sleeping sickness in man: 1) Glossina morsitans (savannah fly); 2) Glossina fusca (forest fly); 3) Glossina palpalis (riverine fly). Both female and male are feed on blood, in contrast with other hematophagous insects that only the female is the bloodsucker.
TseTse flies breed near rivers and streams. The female TseTse fly only fertilize one egg at a time and retain each egg within their uterus to have the offspring develop internally during the first larval stages, a strategy called adenotrophic viviparity. During this time, the female feeds the developing offspring with a milky substance secreted by a modified gland in the uterus. In the third larval stage, the tsetse larva finally leave the uterus and begin their independent life. However, the newly independent tsetse larva simply crawls into the ground, and forms a hard outer shell called the puparial case, in which it completes its morphological transformation into an adult fly.
TseTse Fly Life Cycle Documentary Part I (Video)
TseTse Fly Life Cycle Documentary Part II (Video)