Monday, March 26, 2012

Excitation-contraction Coupling

Excitation-contraction coupling refers to the sequence of events by which an action potential in the plasma membrane of a muscle fiber leads to cross-bridge activity. The skeletal muscle plasma membrane is an excitable membrane capable of generating and propagating action potentials by mechanisms similar to those described for nerve cells. An action potential in a skeletal muscle fiber lasts 1 to 2 ms and is completed before any signs of mechanical activity begin. Once begun, the mechanical activity following an action potential may last 100 ms or more. The electrical activity in the plasma membrane does not directly act upon the contractile proteins but instead produces a state of increased cytosolic calcium concentration, which continues to activate the contractile apparatus long after the electrical activity in the membrane has ceased.

In a resting muscle fiber, the concentration of free, ionized calcium in the cytosol surrounding the thick and thin filaments is very low. At this low calcium concentration, very few of the calciumbinding sites on troponin are occupied, and thus crossbridge activity is blocked by tropomyosin. Following an action potential, there is a rapid increase in cytosolic calcium concentration, and calcium binds to troponin, removing the blocking effect of tropomyosin and allowing cross-bridge cycling. The source of the increased cytosolic calcium is the sarcoplasmic reticulum within the muscle fiber.