How many bones is the human skull made of? The skull or cranium is composed of eight cranial bones and fourteen facial bones, which are all fused together by sutures. The skull cranial bones protect the brain and they are: one frontal, two parietal, two sphenoid, two temporal, and one occipital bones. Dome of the skull is known as the skullcap and the lower part is called the base. The largest of the facial bones are the upper and lower jaws (maxilla and mandible). At the center of the base of the skull there is hole called foramen magnum, through which the spinal cord runs. The cranium turns freely on top of the vertebral column, which is made up of separate bones called vertebra.